Yonago Acta medica 2011;54:011019
Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats
Zhongzhi Wang, Junichi Hasegawa, Xinhui Wang, Akiko Matsuda, Takahiro Tokuda, Norimasa Miura and Tatsuo Watanabe*
Division of Pharmacotherapeutics, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, and *Division of Integrative Physiology, Department of Functional, Morphological and Regulatory Science, School of Medicine, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago 683-8503, Japan
We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-α and IL-1β levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol.
Key words: aspirin; gastric damage; ginger powder; inflammatory cytokine; inducible form of NO synthase activity